Dubrovnik is a city located on the Adriatic Sea coast of Croatia, positioned at the terminal end of the Isthmus of Dubrovnik. It is one of the most prominent tourist destinations on the Adriatic, a seaport and the centre of Dubrovnik-Neretva county. Its total population is 42,641 (census 2011). In 1979, the city of Dubrovnik joined the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. Dubrovnik is among the 10 best medieval walled cities in the world.
With the fall of Austria–Hungary in 1918, the city was incorporated into the new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (later the Kingdom of Yugoslavia). The name of the city was officially changed from Ragusa to Dubrovnik. During World War II, Dubrovnik became part of the Nazi allied Independent State of Croatia, occupied by the Italian army first, and by the German army after 8 September 1943. In October 1944 Tito's partisans entered Dubrovnik, which became consequently part of Communist Yugoslavia.
Dubrovnik was demilitarised in the 1970s to protect it from becoming a casualty of war. In 1991 Croatia and Slovenia, which at that time were republics within Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, declared their independence. At that event, Socialist Republic of Croatia was renamed Republic of Croatia. However the Serb community wanted autonomy and protection and soon fighting broke out in Serb dominated parts of the country. On October 1, 1991 Dubrovnik was attacked by Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) with a siege of Dubrovnik that lasted for seven months. This action resulted in heavy casualties. The artillery attacks on the old city damaged 63% of its buildings to some degree, as the historic walled city, sustained 650 hits by artillery rounds. In May 1992 the Croatian Army lifted the siege and liberated Dubrovnik's surroundings, but the danger of sudden attacks by the JNA lasted for another three years
Following the end of the war, damage caused by the shelling of the Old Town was repaired. Most of that damage has now been repaired to the original style. This photograph shows the brightly coloured roofs subject of that repair giving some indication as to extent of the damage caused by the conflict. In twenty years the city has been returned to its former magnificence.